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Variables, mixins, and functions

Here are some simple explanations and examples of variables, mixins, and functions in Sass:

Variables

Variables in Sass are like placeholders for values that you can use throughout your stylesheets. You can define a variable at the top of your Sass file using the `$` symbol, and then reference it later in your code. Here's an example:

$primary-color: #ff0000;

a {
  color: $primary-color;
}

In this example, we define a variable called `$primary-color` and give it a value of `#ff0000`. Then, we use that variable to set the `color` property of the `a` element. If we want to change the primary color throughout our stylesheet, we can just change the value of the `$primary-color` variable and it will update everywhere it's used.

Mixins

Mixins in Sass are like functions in other programming languages - they're reusable blocks of code that you can call whenever you need them. You define a mixin using the `@mixin` directive, and then call it using the `@include` directive. Here's an example:

@mixin border-radius($radius) {
  -webkit-border-radius: $radius;
  -moz-border-radius: $radius;
  border-radius: $radius;
}

button {
  @include border-radius(5px);
}

In this example, we define a mixin called `border-radius` that takes a parameter `$radius`, and sets the border radius of an element using that value. Then, we call the mixin on the `button` element using the `@include` directive, passing in a value of `5px` for the `$radius` parameter.

Functions

Functions in Sass are similar to mixins, but they're more flexible and can return a value. You define a function using the `@function` directive, and then call it using the `#{}` syntax. Here's an example:

@function em($size) {
  $base-font-size: 16px;
  @return ($size / $base-font-size) * 1em;
}

h1 {
  font-size: em(24px);
}

In this example, we define a function called `em` that takes a parameter `$size`, and converts a pixel value to an em value based on the base font size. Then, we call the function on the `font-size` property of the `h1` element using the `#{}` syntax.

These are just a few examples of what you can do with variables, mixins, and functions in Sass. By using these features, you can write more efficient and maintainable CSS code, and save yourself a lot of time and effort in the long run.

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